A Concise Introduction to Ceramics by George Phillips

By George Phillips

To Cera1l1ics by way of George C. Phillips V AN NOSTRAND REINHOLD ____ big apple Copyright ('> 1991 through Van Nostrand Reinhold Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1 st version 1991 Library of COnRreSS Catalog Card quantity 91.19587 ISBN.13: 978.94.011--6975.2 All rights eserve r d. No a part of this paintings coated by way of the copyright hereon could be rcproduccd or uscd in any shape or via any means-graphic. digital. or meehaniclli. together with photocopying. recording. taping. or info garage and retrieval systems-without written permission of the writer. synthetic within the u . s . a . released by way of Van Nostrand Reinhold a hundred and fifteen 5th street long island. ny 10003 Chapman and Ha ll 2-6 Boundary Row London. SEI SHN. England Thomas Nelson Australia 102 Dodds highway South Melbourne 3205 Victoria. Australia Nelson Canada 1120 Birchmounl highway Scarborough. Ontario M IK 5G4. Canada sixteen 15 14 thirteen 12 II 10 nine eight 7 6 five four three 2 Library or Congress Cataloging-in. ebook information Phillips. George C .. 1937- A concise inlrodu!;tion to ceramics/by George C. Phillips. p. cm. contains bibliographical referen!;es and index. ISBN-13: 978-94-011--6975-2 e-ISBN-13: 978-94-011--6973-8 001:10: 1007/978-94-011--6973-8 I. Cerami!;s. L Tille.

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Lattice water within the crystal structure. The different stages of drying are represented in Figure 4-12. The initial removal of the suspension and interparticle water results in shrinkage, as shown in the figure. The water remaining after this shrinkage is referred to as pore water because it is in between the grains. This pore water can be removed at a faster rate once the shrinkage has occurred. The physically adsorbed water, which is the dipole water molecule, is removed by heating to temperatures above IOO°C.

CHAMBER- FIGURE 4-5. Forming in a pressure chamber. These problems are alleviated by agglomerating the finer particles into larger granulars in the range of 100 to 150 microns. The resulting microstructure from this agglomeration is shown in Figure 4-6. The voids, which are the limiting features of the surfaces, between the agglomerates are in the range of 15 to 20 microns, which is considerably larger than the one micron grain size of the starting powder. Forming From Powders I<'IGURE 4-6. 21 Micrm,tructure formed by agglomerating fine particles into larger granulars.

The outstanding property of glass is its transparency. Although all of the single-crystal oxides are transparent, most ceramics are formed from sintering powders and are polycrystalline; and polycrystalline materials are opaque or translucent because light is scattered at the grain boundaries and is not transmitted through the material. Glass, on the other hand, is homogeneous, does not have grain boundaries, and thus is transparent. Silica is the basic ingredient for glass. Although it is the least expensive of all raw materials, other oxides such as sodium oxide (soda) and calcium oxide (lime) are added to the silica as fluxes to reduce the firing temperatures.

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