By Michael A. Jochim
As an archaeologist with basic examine and coaching event in North American arid lands, i've got consistently chanced on the ecu Stone Age distant and impenetrable. My preliminary advent, in the course of a survey direction on international prehis tory, validated that (for me, a minimum of) it consisted of extra cultures, dates, and named software kinds than any undergraduate should need to bear in mind. i didn't recognize a lot, yet I knew there have been larger issues i'll be doing on a Saturday evening. In any occasion, after that I by no means heavily entertained any inspiration of pur suing study on Stone Age Europe-that direction used to be sufficient for me. that is a pity, too, simply because Paleolithic Europe-especially within the overdue Pleistocene and early Holocene-was the scene of progressive human adaptive switch. Iron ically, it all used to be amenable to research utilizing exactly the similar types and analytical instruments i finished up spending the higher a part of twenty years using within the nice Basin of western North the United States. again then, after all, few have been considering the overdue Paleolithic or Me solithic in such phrases. Typology, category, and chronology have been the order of the day, because the textual content for my undergraduate direction mirrored. Jochim obviously bridled under I on the activity of gaining knowledge of those chronotaxonomic mysteries, but he used to be keenly conscious of their limitations-in specific, their silence on how person assemblages can be attached as a part of higher nearby subsis tence-settlement systems.
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Extra info for A Hunter—Gatherer Landscape: Southwest Germany in the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic
In these two highly variable environments, the men easily cross the boundaries between sex roles as part of the overall flexibility of behavior necessary to cope with the variability of resources. Men among the Cree of Canada, on the other hand, responded to hunting declines in a different manner: "the group became dependent on small mammals, small birds and fish, which was usually the woman's productive speciality; the men scoured the countryside with a gun, living off small game, searching further and further afield, at first for big game, and sometimes later seeking help" (Tanner, 1979:56).
The succession of birds and fish is less well known, but the postglacial landscape certainly contained a diverse array of game birds and waterfowl and the rivers and lakes had a variety of different species of fish and shellfish. Again, these changes indicate a gradual increase in diversity of species, resulting in a greater variety of potential sources of food and raw materials. At the same time, the size of individual animals and of aggregations-the package size-decreased, as smaller and more solitary animals replaced the more gregarious reindeer and horse.
Our models may need to separate food and nonfood requirements. Resources could be separately ranked in terms of hides, useful bone and antler, and other materials, just as they may need to be separately ranked according to efficiency and reliability of procurement. Fulfillment of these nonfood needs, like that of nutritional requirements, 22 CHAPTER 2 could be assumed to be embedded within the food choices. Subsequent evaluation of predicted resource use could determine if these needs appear to be met.