A Reference Grammar of Russian (Reference Grammars) by Alan Timberlake

By Alan Timberlake

This textbook describes and systematizes all facets of the grammar of Russian--including styles of orthography, sounds, inflection, syntax, tense-aspect-mood, observe order, and intonation. it truly is particularly enthusiastic about the which means of combos of phrases (constructions) and the center notion is that of the predicate heritage (a list of the states of entities via time and throughout possibilities). utilizing predicate histories, the ebook provides an built-in account of the semantics of verbs, nouns, case, and element. it's going to entice scholars, students and language execs drawn to Russian.

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3 Thus [ú], the furthest back and most strongly labialized vowel, has the lowest F2 (around 600 Hz); the value increases as one goes around the vowel space to [ó] (700--900 Hz), [ƒ] (1000--1400 Hz), [†] (1600--1800 Hz), and [í], with a value of 2000 Hz or more. [Ó] tends to slight diphthongization: [uo´] (or [uo´] after soft consonants). 5 (F3 − F2 )(F2 − F1 )/(F3 − F1 ) (Carlson et al. 1970). 1 Properties of stressed vowels Co VCo F1 F2 Co VC ¸ F1 F2 C ¸ VCo F1 F2 C ¸ VC ¸ F1 F2 312 316 313 293 261 2017 2065 2121 2175 1994 317 346 339 273 210 2020 2114 2355 2324 2061 [í] 10 ms.

9 The most salient factor is position with respect to stress, but it will be useful to mention some other factors, summarized in [1]. 7 8 9 “known to very few native speakers of Russian” (Gordina [1989:21], who also notes that Sccsr-rekm was changed to Bccsr-rekm in the 1930s). Padgett 2001 sees the distinctive quality of [Ci- ] in the velarization of the preceding consonant. Shcherba 1912. ] b VR ≥ VZ ≥ VS ≥ VD ≥ VT c V# ≥ VCV ≥ VCR(V) ≥ VCC(V) Stressed vowels differ in their intrinsic duration, in proportion to the degree of aperture (acoustically, F1 ) ([1](a)).

This strategy may gain ground. In e-mail communication with Russians (in the format of plain text in a Latin alphabet), there is no standardized procedure. Not uncommon is a strategy like that of computerized corpora, in which the unusual Cyrillic consonant letters are spelled with digraphs with ≤h≥ as in most transliteration systems, while ≤j≥ is used for ≤q≥ and as the operational graph in vowel letters, for example ≤z≥ becomes ≤ja≥. Some Russians use ≤je≥ for ≤t≥ after vowels. The various systems for Romanizing Cyrillic are similar and about equally adequate.

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