Agricultural acarology : introduction to integrated mite by Marjorie A. Hoy

By Marjorie A. Hoy

Content material: creation to Acarology normal creation to Acarology chosen References chosen web pages correct to Acarology the connection of Mites to different Arthropods features of the Arthropoda larger class of Mites chosen References easy constitution and serve as of Mites Morphology Feeding and foodstuff forms Excretion Water stability Muscle procedure breathing The worried and Sensory platforms The Circulatory approach Lifecycles Diapause Dispersal replica Genetics and intercourse choice chosen References assortment, identity and Culturing of Mites assortment pursuits amassing Plant-Feeding or Predatory Mites tracking Vertebrates for Parasitic Mites and Ticks id of Mites Culturing Mites extra Acarological details chosen References built-in Mite administration process and strategies the method of built-in Mite administration historic evaluation Classical, Augmentative, and Conservation organic keep an eye on Quarantines Cultural Controls Genetic keep watch over Chemical keep watch over Pesticide Resistance Host-Plant Resistance Sampling and tracking tools Crop Pest keep an eye on specialists and built-in Pest administration chosen References Pest Mites and Their common Enemies on vegetation Tetranychidae: best Plant Pests Systematics. Biology function of Silk Dispersal inhabitants Dynamics Tetranychid Anatomy chosen Species of Plant Pests by way of Genus Tetranychidae and Plant ailments Tetranychidae as Weed keep watch over brokers Host-Plant Resistance to Tetranychidae Resistance to Host-Plant Resistance Pesticide Resistance in Tetranychids chosen References The Tarsonemidae Biology of the Plant-Feeding Tarsonemidae Steneotarsonemus (or Phytonemus) pallidus Polyphagotarsonemus (or Hemitarsonemus) latus keep an eye on different Pest Species of Tarsonemids chosen References The Eriophyoidea: the great, the undesirable, and the Unknown uncomplicated Biology Vectors of sickness: certainly bad chosen Eriophyoid Pests accumulating and Sampling Eriophyoids Eriophyoids as substitute Prey: most likely reliable. Invasive Eriophyoid Species: in actual fact undesirable organic keep an eye on of Weeds via Eriophyoid Mites: most likely solid identity of Eriophyoids keep watch over of Eriophyoids chosen References The Tenuipalpidae (Flat or fake Spider Mites) as Pests Biology a few Tenuipalpid Pests all over the world. Transmission of Plant illnesses regulate of Tenuipalpids chosen References The Penthaleidae Systematics and Distribution Red-Legged Earth Mite (RLEM) Blue Oat Mite (Penthaleus species) chosen References buddies or Foes? The Anystidae: associates of constrained price. The Hypoaspidae: acquaintances, particularly for Augmentative Releases. The Tuckerellidae: power Pests hardly discovered other than in Tropical and Subtropical Climates The Tydeidae: usually buddies as Predators, replacement Prey, and Sanitizing brokers The Acaridae: frequently Foes yet sometimes necessary? The Hemisarcoptidae: buddies Requiring extra learn The Stigmaeidae: associates, in particular in Unsprayed Orchards and Vineyards. The Oribatida (Cryptostigmata): often important within the Soil yet can cause Crop Root harm and Contaminate meals chosen References The Phytoseiidae: powerful traditional Enemies basic Biology Phytoseiid Systematics Phytoseiids in Augmentative organic keep an eye on courses Life-Table Analyses of Phytoseiids Prey-Location habit Dispersal Plant-Emitted Volatiles and organic regulate. Pesticide Resistances in Phytoseiids Genetic development of Phytoseiids Rearing tools for Spider Mites and Phytoseiids chosen References Predatory bugs and Plant-Feeding Mites bugs as Predators of Plant-Feeding Mites: execs and Cons kin Coccinellidae (Order Coleoptera): Stethorus Are Mite experts family members Staphylinidae (Order Coleoptera): Oligota Species will be beneficial Predators of Spider Mites Order Thysanoptera (Phlaeothripidae, Asolothripidae, Thripidae): Thrips can be Generalists or experts (Six-Spotted Thrips) Heteroptera (Hemiptera: real Bugs): Generalist Predators of Small Arthropods, together with Mites. Cecidomyiidae (Order Diptera): Feltiella Species may be powerful Predators of Spider Mites Order Neuroptera (Chrysopidae, Coniopterigidae, Hemerobiidae): Generalist Predators which can occasionally Feed on Mites Ants as Predators of T. urticae Spiders as Predators of Mites and Ticks: much less good Studied chosen References Pathogens and Symbionts of Mites and Ticks Microbial Symbionts and Pathogens Viruses of Mites and Ticks Fungal Pathogens Microsporidial Pathogens. Commercialization of Microbial insecticides. chosen References Exemplars of built-in Mite administration courses for Plant-Feeding Mites Classical organic regulate of the Cassava eco-friendly Mite in Africa Steps in a Classical organic regulate application Cassava eco-friendly Mite (Mononychellus tanajoa) in Africa. keep watch over Measures tried danger assessment for Classical organic regulate Taxonomic difficulties Why no longer Use African Phytoseiids as typical Enemies? application bills and merits chosen References built-in Mite administration in Washington Apple Orchards The Apple atmosphere. Mites on Apples IMM from the Nineteen Sixties to the Early Nineties issues of IMM within the Nineties present and destiny alterations to IMM in Washington Apple Orchards. chosen References built-in Mite administration in California Almonds Almonds in California Pest Mites in California Almond Orchards. examine on keep watch over strategies mixed strategies of the IMM software up to date Almond Pest administration software chosen References built-in Mite administration in Citrus in Florida and California Citrus construction in Florida and California range in California Climates and Mite Species. dealing with Mites in Florida Citrus Groves examine wishes chosen References dealing with Mites on decorative vegetation sorts of decorative crops. strategies for dealing with Pests of Ornamentals Mites on decorative crops Predatory Mite free up tools in Greenhouses the way forward for Pest administration in Greenhouse Ornamentals chosen References Soil Mites and Agriculture Pest Mites of Honey Bees Varroa jacobsoni Biology and Taxonomy tracking for Varroa keep watch over of Varroa built-in Varroa administration. chosen References Tracheal Mite (Acarapis woodi) Biology built-in regulate of Acarapis woodi chosen References Parasitic Mites of Mammals and Birds Ticks (Argasidae and Ixodidae) Ticks as Pests Biology of the Ixodidae Genera of the Ixodidae Biology of the Argasidae Pest administration of Ticks chosen References Pest Mites of Farm and spouse Animals fowl pink Mite or Roost Mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Dermanyssidae) eu or Northern bird Mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Macronyssidae). Tropical chook Mite, Ornithonyssus bursa (Macronyssidae) Chiggers (Actinedida: Trombiculidae) Follicle Mites, Demodex (Actinedida: Demodicidae). Straw- or Hay-Itch Mites, Pyemotes (Actinedida: Pyemotidae) Fur Mites, Cheyletiella (Actinedida: Cheyletiellidae) Acaridid Mites as Parasites or Scavengers Endoparasites of farm animals chosen References Pest Mites of saved items and families Post-Harvest Pest Mites Acarine Pests of saved meals keep watch over of Mites in saved Grains and different meals kept Bulb Mites and Their regulate chosen References airborne dirt and dust Mites (Pyroglyphidae) the significance of airborne dirt and dust Mites Species of airborne dirt and dust Mites. Biology of dirt Mites built-in administration of airborne dirt and dust Mites and Their Allergens chosen References a few basic Conclusions approximately built-in Mite administration thesaurus Index

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Spider mite species identifications are determined by examining the shape of the male aedeagus, which means that we need both males and females to identify to species. Males must be mounted on their sides on slides with the aedeagus extruded to get an accurate view of the aedeagus for identification. This can be difficult to achieve because the males are more or less triangular in shape. Mating behavior in the Phytoseiidae has been studied in several species (Amano and Chant 1978, Hoy and Smilanick 1979, Hoy and Cave 1985, 1986, 1988, Tsunoda 1994).

In addition, haplodiploid spider mite species can respond rapidly to selection for the ability to survive on new host plants. Spider mite species identifications are determined by examining the shape of the male aedeagus, which means that we need both males and females to identify to species. Males must be mounted on their sides on slides with the aedeagus extruded to get an accurate view of the aedeagus for identification. This can be difficult to achieve because the males are more or less triangular in shape.

Each type of habitat may require different collecting methods (Evans et al. 1961, Evans 1992, Krantz and Walter 2009). However, the focus here is on collecting mites of agricultural importance, and the collection method chosen will depend on your goals. Are you collecting mites from foliage so they can be provided to a taxonomic specialist for identification? Are the mites to be reared in the laboratory to monitor their biology? Are the mites crop pests and you want to quantify their abundance to evaluate population densities and economic injury levels?

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