By Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber
Advances in Photovoltaics: Part Four presents important info at the demanding situations confronted in the course of the transformation of our power offer process to extra effective, renewable energies.
The quantity discusses the subject from a world viewpoint, offering the newest info on photovoltaics, a cornerstone technology.
It covers all facets of this crucial semiconductor know-how, reflecting at the great and dynamic advances which have been made in this subject on the grounds that 1975, whilst the 1st publication on sunlight cells-written by way of Harold J. Hovel of IBM-was released as quantity eleven within the now well-known sequence on Semiconductors and Semimetals.
Readers will achieve a backstage examine the continual and fast clinical improvement that ends up in the required fee and price discount rates in international business mass-production.
- Written by way of best, the world over recognized specialists on his topic
- Provides an in-depth review of the present prestige and views of skinny movie PV technologies
- Discusses the demanding situations confronted through the transformation of our strength provide process to extra effective, renewable energies
- Delves deep into photovoltaics, a cornerstone technolog
Read or Download Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 4, PDF
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Additional resources for Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 4,
2012). , 2012). Silicon Crystallization Technologies 49 FZ silicon is the best-in-class material, but it requires first-class polysilicon feedstock and this is one of the bottlenecks for FZ commercialization. To be used as an FZ feed rod, the polysilicon has to be straight, crack-free, and showing a smooth surface without popcorn structure. Before they go into the furnace, the rods are machined on a lathe to the following form: round, cylindrical diameter, a cone on one end (it will become the shoulder) and a groove on the other end (used for the feed rod holder; Fig.
Since it has to be machined from metal, any contact between the watercooled device and the growing crystal has to be avoided. Anyway, it is an interesting approach and it will increase the productivity and thus will further reduce cost. Furthermore, it shows that even for the rather matured Cz pullers, there is still room for improvements. 3 Multipulling, Feeding, and Continuous Growth The Cz process is a batch process with high consumable costs. , 2003; Zulehner, 1982). The biggest problems when operating a continuous system are the reactivity of liquid silicon, the zero tolerance of the process for particles, and the increase of complexity of the whole system.
The heaters, the susceptor for the quartz crucible, and all the insulation parts are machined out of graphite. Due to the interaction with SiO, with residual moisture, or with oxygen, rather high concentrations of CO are generated. The CO will be absorbed at the free melt surface and consequently forms SiC precipitates in the silicon block as soon as a certain supersaturation is reached. To minimize the CO transport into the melt, the system is continuously purged with argon, and the inlet nozzle faces the melt surface directly.