An Ecological and Societal Approach to Biological Control by J. Eilenberg, Heikki M. T. Hokkanen

By J. Eilenberg, Heikki M. T. Hokkanen

Biological keep watch over is likely one of the so much promising equipment for regulate of pests, illnesses and weeds, and this publication treats ecological and societal points jointly for the 1st time. the purpose is to judge the importance of convinced organic houses like biodiversity and typical habitats. In a societal strategy phrases like ‘consumer’s attitude’, ‘risk perception’, ‘learning and schooling’ and ‘value triangle’ are famous as major for organic creation and human welfare.

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Entomol. (in press). , Becker, H. and Runge-Metzger, A. 1998. Kosten und Nutzen des chemischen Pflanzenschutzes in der deutschen Landwirtschaft aus gesamtwirtschaftlicher Sicht. Agrarökonomische Monographien und Sammelwerke. Wissenschaftsverlag Vauk Kiel KG, Kiel, Germany. 254 pp. Webber, H. J. 1967. History and development of the citrus industry. In The Citrus Industry, Vol. 1, W. J. D. Batchelor (eds), University of California Press, 1-39. Webster, J. P. G. and Bowles, R. G. 1996. Estimating the economic costs and benefits of pesticide use in apples.

It is most efficient against 38 B. SPEISER, E. WYSS AND V. MAURER young larval stages and must be repeatedly applied during the entire flight period of the codling moth. Mating disruption and granulosis virus are often combined for better efficacy. In organic apple production, two other biocontrol agents are often used: the granulose virus AoGV against the summer fruit tortrix moth Adoxophyes orana (Fischer von Rösslerstamm) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki against the winter moth Operophtera brumata (L).

Principle of prevention Organic farming considers problems with pests, diseases or parasites as indicators of an inadequate management system. Therefore, the main challenge in organic production is to optimize the management system, including (but not restricted to) all measures by which the crops or animals become more healthy, or the living conditions for pests and diseases become less favourable. This approach called ‘indirect crop protection’ or ‘preventive animal-health management’ is typical for organic farming.

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