An introduction to the physics of nonneutral plasmas by Ronald C. Davidson

By Ronald C. Davidson

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Extra resources for An introduction to the physics of nonneutral plasmas

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30) 13 14 8 SQUID Voltmeters and Amplifiers Fig. 5 Circuit used to measure (a) the power gain and (b) the noise temperature of an untuned SQUID amplifier. Components in the dashed boxes are immersed in liquid helium. (Reproduced with permission from ref. ) where TNP is the noise temperature of the postamplifier. By measuring the output noise power as a function of Ti one can obtain TN. 6 nH was connected in series with a capacitor Ci » 20 pF and the source resistance Ri. The measured resonant frequency was about 93 MHz and Q was about 45.

4 MHz is a calibrating signal. (Reproduced with permission from ref. ) error bars are determined solely by the uncertainty in the spectrum analyzer measurement. We see that TN scales as T above about 150 mK, and flattens off at temperatures below about 70 mK to 47 – 10 mK; by comparison, the quantum-limited noise temperature, TQ » hf/kB, is about 25 mK. A potential source of the low-temperature saturation of TN is hot electrons produced in the resistive shunts by bias current heating. Wellstood et al.

These connections can be made using indium bump-bonds. In principle, the SQUID switches could be fabricated on the same wafer as the sensors. In this case, the number of connections from the detector and SQUID wafer to the next stage is reduced by multiplexing. The sampling rate for each detector must be higher than the Nyquist frequency for the detector bandwidth f = (2pseff )–1.

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