Applications of Statistical and Field Theory Methods to by A. J. Leggett (auth.), Dionys Baeriswyl, Alan R. Bishop,

By A. J. Leggett (auth.), Dionys Baeriswyl, Alan R. Bishop, José Carmelo (eds.)

There isn't any doubt that we have got, over the past decade, moved right into a "golden age" of condensed subject technological know-how. The series of discoveries of novel new states of topic and their quick assimilation into experimental and theoretical learn, in addition to units, has been extraordinary. to call yet a couple of: spin glasses; incommensurate, fractal, quasicrystal constructions; man made metals; quantum good fabrication; fractional quantum corridor impression: strong kingdom chaos; heavy fermions; and such a lot spectacularly high-temperature superconductivity. This speedy evolution has been marked through the necessity to deal with the truth of fabrics in "extreme" stipulations - - disordered, nonlinear structures in diminished dimensions, constrained geometries and at mesoscopic scales, frequently with notable competitions among a number of size and frequency scales, and among robust electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions. In such new territory it's not incredible that very interdisciplinary ways are being explored and conventional obstacles among topics and disciplines re-defined. In thought, this can be obtrusive, for example, in makes an attempt: (1) to develop the state-of-the-art for elec­ tronic constitution calculations with a purpose to deal with strongly interacting many-body platforms and mild competitions for collective floor states (spin types or many-electron Hamiltoni­ ans, box idea, band constitution, quantum chemistry and numerical approaches); or (2) to appreciate trend formation and intricate (including chaotic) dynamics in prolonged sys­ tems. This calls for shut involvement with utilized arithmetic, numerical simulations and statistical mechanics techniques.

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One allows for fluctuations of the dynamical variables and imposes at the end given expected values for the relevant observables which classically characterize its state. These are the values which are supposed to describe the operating conditions. , the state is a zero voltage state and that the expectation value for the current is the one which is supposed to be given by the classical external generator. Let us first include harmonic quantum fluctuations of a zero voltage state for a CBJ with a given current, quantizing as usual by means of the correspondence principle.

A. Silbey and R. A. Harris, J. Chern. Phys. 80, 2615 (1984). 14. S. Chakravarty, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1811 (1982). 15. A. J. Bray and M. A. Moore, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1546 (1982). O. P. 6165, 13081 Campinas, SP, Brasil ABSTRACT In this lecture I shall introduce the concept of metastable states (or phases) in macroscopic systems at very low temperatures. I shall particularly be interested in two specific examples: superconducting devices and anisotropic magnetic films. By applying some techniques previously used in quantum field theory I will be able to describe the decay of these metastable states by quantum mechanical tunnelling within the WKB approximation.

18) m these two equations take us to two distinct cases: i) 21TLio/o > 1 ii) 21TLi /<1> < 1 o 0 several minima only one minimum. In fig. 4 below we sketch the form of U(x' in case (i) for three differ- p a b C Fig. 4. The potential U(x 32 0; b) x /2- c) 0' x o - Now, let us suppose that at t = 0 there is no external field (Hx = 0) and no superconducting current. In this case, the equilibrium value for the total flux inside the ring is ~ 0 which is represented by the point P in fig.

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