Auger- and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Materials by Siegfried Hofmann

By Siegfried Hofmann

To an individual who's attracted to floor chemical research of fabrics at the nanometer scale, this e-book is ready to offer acceptable info. in keeping with regular program examples in fabrics technological know-how, a concise method of all features of quantitative research of surfaces and skinny motion pictures with AES and XPS is equipped. ranging from uncomplicated rules that are step-by-step constructed into essentially worthy equations, huge information is given to graduate scholars in addition to to skilled researchers. Key chapters are these on quantitative floor research and on quantitative intensity profiling, together with fresh advancements in subject matters similar to floor excitation parameter and backscattering correction issue. uncomplicated kinfolk are derived for emission and excitation attitude dependencies within the research of bulk fabric and of fractional nano-layer constructions, and for either gentle and tough surfaces. it truly is proven how one can optimize the analytical procedure, signal-to-noise ratio, simple task and detection restrict. labored examples for quantification of alloys and of layer buildings in useful circumstances (e.g. infection, evaporation, segregation and oxidation) are used to seriously overview assorted methods to quantification with admire to normal matrix correction components and matrix relative sensitivity components. state of the art concerns in quantitative, harmful and non-destructive intensity profiling are mentioned with emphasis on sputter intensity profiling and on attitude resolved XPS and AES. bearing in mind preferential sputtering and electron backscattering corrections, an creation to the mixing-roughness-information intensity (MRI) version and its extensions is gifted.

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1 Conventional X-Ray Source The most common X-ray sources used in XPS are equipped with Mg or Al anodes, often as a twin anode for alternative use. 6 eV possess sufficiently high energies for core level excitation as well as a sufficiently low line width (below 1 eV) to yield XPS spectra with fairly good resolution. 4]. A thin Al foil (of about 2 m thickness) is placed at the exit of the X-rays to shield the sample from stray electrons, from contamination, and from the heat from the anode. Higher energy Bremsstrahlung is also produced.

47). 6), Fig. 9). 26 2 Instrumentation The total electron beam current can either be measured by a Faraday cup or more conveniently by the current absorbed in the target. During the measurement, the target has to be at a slightly positive potential (typically C50 eV) with respect to the ground in order to avoid secondary emission of low-energy electrons. Note that the initial emission current is usually higher than the current impinging on the sample. Wehnelt cylinder and condenser lens settings determine the beam current.

However, at least two other outdated units can still be found on instruments’ readout and in publications: mbar and Torr. Therefore, the relations between them should be kept in mind: 1 Pa D 1 10 2 mbar D 0:75 10 2 TorrI 1 Torr D 133:3 Pa D 1:333 mbar: In the following, we will generally use the SI unit Pa, and Torr or mbar only as an exception. 1) coll S. 1007/978-3-642-27381-0 2, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013 11 12 2 Instrumentation Fig. 1 Schematic cross section of typical XPS and AES–SAM instruments, (a) VG ESCALAB 250i with concentric hemispheres analyzer (CHA) (Courtesy of Thermo Scientific company) and (b) JAMP 7830F with high-resolution field emission (FE) electron gun (10 nm), and CHA.

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