By P. Parvatha Reddy
Through ‘Green Revolution’ in past due Sixties, India accomplished self-sufficiency in foodstuff creation, yet nonetheless the rustic has now not accomplished self-sufficiency in construction of horticultural vegetation. many of the progress in nutrients construction in the course of the eco-friendly revolution interval is attributed to using better degrees of fertilizers and insecticides that are carrying on with to wreck reliable conventional ecosystems. The problem prior to the crop safety scientist is to extend yields from the prevailing land with out harming the surroundings and source base. this is completed via adopting green Biointensive built-in Pest administration (BIPM) strategy.
BIPM contains ecological and fiscal components into agricultural approach layout and determination making, and addresses public matters approximately environmental caliber and nutrients defense. the advantages of imposing BIPM can comprise diminished chemical enter expenses, decreased on-farm and off-farm environmental affects, and more desirable and sustainable pest administration. An ecology-based IPM has the possibility of reducing inputs of gasoline, equipment, and artificial chemicals-all of that are strength extensive and more and more high priced by way of monetary and environmental influence. Such mark downs will profit the grower and society.
The current e-book bargains with the newest biointensive built-in techniques for pest administration using elements resembling bioagents [predators, parasitoids and pathogens (bacteria, fungi, viruses)], botanicals (biofumigation, oil muffins, FYM, compost, crop residues, eco-friendly manuring and different natural amendments), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, actual tools (hot water therapy of planting fabric, soil solarization), cultural equipment (crop rotation, summer season ploughing, fallowing, intercropping, pruning, mulching, spacing, planting date, catch cropping, etc.), biorational chemical substances (pheromones) and resistant cultivars. This e-book can function an invaluable connection with coverage makers, learn and extension staff, training farmers and scholars. the cloth can be used for instructing post-graduate courses.
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Additional info for Biointensive Integrated Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems
Multicinctus was observed in banana plants treated with P. fluorescens at 2 g/G. mosseae at 25 g along with press mud at 3 kg/plant. 1 Effect of Glomus mosseae and oil cakes on population of Radopholus similis and yield of banana Treatment Dose (g)/plant Population of R. 64 200 112 122 G. 68 G. 61 100 + 200 G. 80 G. 1 Banana, Musa spp. Fig. 4 Application of farmyard manure enriched with bioagent to banana plant leaves, leaf area and bunch weight (Jonathan and Cannayane 2002). 3 Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita The root-knot nematodes, M.
In infested seed beds, the mortality of seedlings occurs in patches. The seedling mortality increases where excessive soil moisture accompanies the favourable temperature for the pathogen. Pathogens survive in soil either through saprophytic growth ( R. ). Seedlings become tolerant to R. solani infection 31 on maturity of first true leaf. Flood irrigation in flat bed system spreads the pathogen from one bed to other. However, infection of seedlings with Phytophthora spp. in primary nursery beds perpetuates and causes further losses to seedlings in secondary nursery beds.
Tiny particles of the clay attach to the insects when they contact the plant, agitating and repelling them. Even if particles do not attach to their bodies, the insects may find the coated plant or fruit unsuitable for feeding and egg-laying. In addition, the highly reflective white coating makes the plant less recognizable as a host. (c) Sugar Esters Sugar esters have performed as well as or better than conventional insecticides against mites and aphids in apple orchards; psylla in pear orchards; and whiteflies, thrips, and mites on vegetables.