By Joe Pardue
Do you need a least expensive solution to research C programming for microcontrollers? This publication indicates you ways to exploit Atmel’s $19.99 AVR Butterfly board and the loose WinAVR C compiler to make a really low-cost procedure for utilizing C to strengthen microcontroller tasks.
Students will locate the thorough assurance of C defined within the context of microcontrollers to be a useful studying aide. pros, even those that already be aware of C, will locate many helpful established software program and examples that might pace their improvement paintings.
In addition to an in-depth insurance of C, the ebook has initiatives for:• Port I/O examining switches and blinking LEDs• UART communique with a laptop• utilizing interrupts, timers, and counters• Pulse Width Modulation for LED brightness and motor velocity keep an eye on• making a genuine Time Clock• Making tune• ADC: Analog to electronic Conversion• DAC: electronic to Analog Conversion• Voltage, mild, and temperature size• creating a sluggish functionality Generator and electronic Oscilloscope• liquid crystal display programming• Writing a Finite kingdom desktop
CD includes the entire resource code, the loose WinAVR C compiler, AVRStudio, and plenty of different important issues.
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Additional info for C Programming for Microcontrollers
If this doesn’t make sense to you now, it will in a minute. Bits The first computers were people with quill pens who spent their lives calculating tables of things like cannonball trajectories to help soldiers more accurately slaughter their enemies. Later mechanical computers, with brass gears and cams, were developed to make the slaughter cheaper, quicker, and easier. Then one day a genius figured that you could do all this computing even easier if you used switches. Switches can be off or on, and the fundamental datum is the ‘bit’ with exactly two ‘binary’, states.
NOTE: myByte = myByte | 0x08; is the same as myByte |= 0x08; which we will use from no on. At the beginning myByte is equal to 42 = 0x2B = 00101011. We set bit 6 with: myByte |= 0x40; which does the following: 55 Chapter 4: C Types, Operators, and Expressions myByte = 00101011 = 0x2B 0x40 = 01000000 = 0x40 -----------------------AND = 01101011 = 0x6B Next we want to clear bits 0 and 2: myByte &= 0xFA; which does the following: myByte = 01101011 = 0x6B 0x40 = 11111010 = 0xFA -----------------------AND = 01101010 = 0x6A So in summary we set bits with ‘|’ and clear bits with ‘&’.
Most complier warnings are even more cryptic. Not all compilers will flag this error with a warning. It is a very easy mistake to make, and you will feel really dumb after an hour of debugging, looking for something obscure, only to find a lousy missing ‘=’ character. I do this all the time. Note: Some of these operators may seem strange at this point, but they are explained fully in later sections. Then they’ll seem really strange. Table 1: Arithmetic Operators Operator * / % + ++ -+ Name Multiplication Division Modulo Addition Subtraction Increment Decrement Negation Unary Plus Example x*y x/y x%y x+y x-y x++ --x -x +x Defined Multiply x times y Divide x by y Provide the remainder of x divided by y Add x and y Subtract y from x Increment x after using it Decrement x before using it Multiply x by –1 Show x is positive (not really needed) Table 2: Data Access and Size Operators Operator  .