Café con leche : race, class, and national image in by Winthrop R. Wright

By Winthrop R. Wright

An exploration of even if ancient proof truly help the preferred belief that Venezuelans have completed a racial democracy within which humans of all races reside loose from prejudice and discrimination.

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Additional resources for Café con leche : race, class, and national image in Venezuela

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While they did not necessarily oppose social mobility, they were offended seeing descendants of African slaves dressed in apparel similar to their own. By the later eighteenth century, the elites' antipathy toward blacks and pardos took on an emotional quality akin to modern racism, but different in important ways. " 28 About the only positive piece of information Dauxion­Lavaysse picked up about zambos reputed that mixed Afro­Indians led healthier lives, resisted diseases better, and seemed better suited physically for life in the tropics than any of their pure­blooded ancestors.

Although these groups often professed loose political affiliations with national parties, they expressed no clear­cut ideologies.  They, too, lacked an adequate work force and always found themselves dependent upon wealthy bankers and merchants, as well as subject to the vagaries of world markets.  But, they also suspected that slaves and free blacks would join revolutionary political bands whose intentions included the extermination of whites.  Venezuelans experienced an extended period of alternating anarchy, despotism, and civil war in various parts of their nation, but especially on the llanos.

Moreover, none of these movements met with success, and government officials moved quickly to crush them, with relative ease.  Without leadership, the insurrection succumbed with little resistance to the militia forces sent to Coro to put down the revolt.  35 Minor revolts that occurred in 1796, 1798, and 1799 in Coro and Maracaibo nevertheless kept alive the elites' lingering fear that racial warfare might break out in areas of Venezuela with heavy concentrations of slaves and free blacks.  But in 1816, they seemingly switched sides, joining the same creole faction against which they had recently fought a battle to the death.

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