By Sergey V. Dorozhkin
Due to a superb chemical similarity with the organic calcified tissues, many calcium orthophosphates own striking biocompatibility and bioactivity. fabrics scientists use this estate commonly to build man made bone grafts which are both totally made up of or simply surface-coated with the biologically correct calcium orthophosphates. Porous scaffolds made up of calcium orthophosphates are very promising instruments for tissue engineering purposes. A complete evaluate of calcium orthophosphates, this publication highlights their significance and biomedical uses.
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Extra resources for Calcium Orthophosphates: Applications in Nature, Biology, and Medicine
Further optical and X-ray analysis of bones and other mineralized tissues matched analyses of two apatites: FA and dahllite . Additional historical data on this point are available in literature . Nowadays, according to Weiner and Wagner: “the term bone refers to a family of materials, all of which are built up of mineralized collagen fibrils” [544, 545]. For mammals, this family of materials includes dentine — the material that constitutes the inner layers of teeth, cementum — the thin layer that binds the roots of teeth to the jaw, deer antlers and some other materials [544, 546].
Level 2: mineralized collagen fibrils. level 3: The array of mineralized collagen fibrils with a cross-striation periodicity of nearly 60–70 nm. level 4: Two fibril array patterns of organization as found in the zebrafish skeleton bone. level 5: The lamellar structure in one vertebra. level 6: A vertebra. level 7: Skeleton bone. reprinted from ref.  with permission. Other good graphical sketches of the hierarchical structure of bones are available in Refs. [544, 583, 584]. Biological Hard Tissues of Calcium Orthophosphates The smallest level of the bone hierarchy consists of the molecular components: water, biological apatite, collagen and other proteins .
Among all known BCP formulations, BCP consisting of HA and β-TCP is both the most known and the best investigated [312–323]. In 1986, leGeros in uSA and Daculsi in France initiated the basic studies on preparation of this type of BCP and its in vitro properties. This material is soluble and gradually dissolves in the body, seeding new bone formation as it releases calcium and orthophosphate ions into the biological medium. 4) as bone-graft or bone substitute materials for orthopaedic and dental applications under various trade marks and several manufacturers .