Climatic Risk Atlas of European Butterflies by Josef Settele

By Josef Settele

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G. Tolman & Lewington 2008) consider the latter only as a subspecies of P. glandon, often also including the local endemic P. zuellichi from Sierra Nevada (which has not been modelled due to the few data points). Cyaniris semiargus is provisionally removed from the genus Polyommatus LATREILLE, 1804. New molecular results indicate a closer relationship to Plebejus than to Polyommatus (Wiemers 2003). Some species of the genus Scolitantides HÜBNER, 1819, used to be placed in Pseudophilotes BEURET, 1958, which here is regarded as a junior subjective synonym of the former.

The caterpillar spins itself a small, tube-like shelter from leaves of the larval foodplant, living and feeding in it until fully grown. It then builds itself a sturdier shelter in which to pass the winter. In the spring, without further feeding, it pupates, either in the shelter, or in the moss layer. ) and, while visiting flowers, is easily observed. The Dingy Skipper has one brood a year in central and northern Europe and two in the southern part. 72). Climate risk category: PR. Observed species distribution (50 × 50 km² UTM grid; black circles) and modelled actual distribution of climatic niche (orange areas) Multidimensional climatic niche.

Lychnitis, P. ). Although there is probably only one generation a year, the butterflies of the Sage Skipper can be seen from spring until autumn, due to prolonged emergence from the pupa. This skipper passes the winter as a caterpillar inside the egg. 89). Climate risk category: HHHR. Observed species distribution (50 × 50 km² UTM grid; black circles) and modelled actual distribution of climatic niche (orange areas) Multidimensional climatic niche. Occurrence probability defined by accumulated growing degree days until August (Gdd) and soil water content (Swc) for combinations of minimum, lower tercile, upper tercile and maximum values of annual temperature range and annual precipitation range.

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