Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics: Basic Research for by National Research Council, Division on Engineering and

By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Committee on Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics

This e-book identifies possibilities, priorities, and demanding situations for the sector of condensed-matter and fabrics physics. It highlights interesting fresh medical and technological advancements and their societal influence and identifies striking questions for destiny study. themes diversity from the technology of contemporary expertise to new fabrics and buildings, novel quantum phenomena, nonequilibrium physics, tender condensed subject, and new experimental and computational tools.

The e-book additionally addresses structural demanding situations for the sphere, together with nurturing its highbrow power, retaining a fit mix of huge and small examine amenities, enhancing the field's integration with different disciplines, and constructing new methods for scientists in academia, executive laboratories, and to interact. will probably be of curiosity to scientists, educators, scholars, and policymakers.

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Extra info for Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics: Basic Research for Tomorrow's Technology

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Complex fluids occur in bewildering variety. To describe and control the different liquid phases, theorists are developing new concepts of molecular organization. With progressively better understanding of the rules of formation, these fluids can be used to construct new kinds of materials with unusual topologies. Extremely light and strong aerogels, used in insulation for example, have a huge surface area trapped in a relatively small volume. Polysaccharides are a class of materials that form complex fluids that are important to industry.

It turns out to result from the formation of quasiparticles whose effective charge is one-third (or various other rational fractions) of the electron’s charge. These quasiparticles are a collective mode of a quantum fluid. The low-energy excitations of this weird fluid consist of vortices bound to a fraction of an electron charge. These objects have been recently observed by direct measurement of their charge and by tunneling experiments in which an electron added to the system breaks up into three excitations, each with one-third of the electron’s charge.

In the realm of magnetic materials, the loss of cobalt in the 1980s because of political unrest in Zaire prompted an intense research effort to find cobalt-free bulk magnetic materials. This led to major advances in creating magnetic structures from neodymium and iron, which had superior properties and lower cost compared with cobalt alloys for electric motors and similar applications requiring magnets with high permanent magnetization. These new magnets, which are achieved through complex alloys and even more complex processing sequences, are vastly expanding the industrial use of bulk magnetic materials.

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