By Abdulhadi Khalaf, Giacomo Luciani
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Extra info for Constitutional Reform and Political Participation in the Gulf
The Persistence of Monarchies in the Arabia Peninsula: A Comparative Analysis”, in Kostiner, Joseph. , Middle East Monarchies. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers; Fandy, Mamoun. 2001. Saudi Arabia and the Politics of Dissent. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; Tétreault, Mary Ann. 2000. Stories of Democracy: Politics and Society in Contemporary Kuwait. New York: Columbia University Press. 35 Constitutional Reform and Political Participatio in the Gulf The ability of Gulf ruling families to withstand challenges in the past has partly been due to their successful mobilization of domestic and external forces.
Corporate groups provide a solid and reasonably stable basis for relations between state and society in the Gulf monarchies. Yet, these relations vary in rationale, forms and outcomes from one Gulf monarchy from another. The state-society relationship is extremely asymmetric, only moderated by an appearance of reciprocal dependency between the state/ruling family, on the one hand, and society/corporate groups, on the other. Individuals, whether merchants, entrepreneurs or members of other elite groups, provide another important internal source of power.
Two weeks after independence, on 1 July 1961, the Amir called for the military assistance of Anglo-Saudi troops, and two months later, the Arab League deployed inter-Arab forces (from the United Arab Republic, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Sudan) to replace the British green berets,3 and the special forces remained in Kuwait until the Iraqi leader’s assassination in February 1963. 4 Under these circumstances of regional and international turmoil, the constituent process took place and shaped the constitution of Kuwait, the very first basic law of the Gulf.