By Reinhard Tidecks
Ranging from the early experiments, this specific presentation, containing greater than 500 references, presents a entire overview on current-induced nonequilibrium phenomena in quasi-one-dimensional superconductors, top the reader from the basics to the latest learn effects. Experiments on monocrystalline filaments (whiskers) - together with these bought via the writer - are in comparison with effects on lengthy skinny movie microbridges and comparable species and interpreted in the theoretical framework. directions on experimental recommendations are given and but unresolved difficulties are mentioned. The booklet is easily perfect as an advent for the amateur and as a guide for the energetic researcher.
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Additional info for Current-Induced Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Quasi-One-Dimensional Superconductors
Quasi particle excitations may be generated by t u n n e l injection (or extraction) of electrons from (or into) a normal conductor. Therefore, the s u p e r c o n d u c t o r for instance blocks the penetration of electrons until their energy is above the pair chemical potential (which is equal to tiF in equilibrium) by at least an a m o u n t of the energy gap. This is the reason why these experiments are a method to measure the gap. The effective charge Q~ of a quasiparticle depends on the effective n u m b e r of electrons ~ adde(t to the system if a quasiparticle with wave n u m b e r vector K is excited.
As far as k n o w n to the author there is no experimental test for the mean free path dependence of zE as discussed in this section. The reason may be that for Al, where a lot of m e a s u r e m e n t s with samples of different electron mean free paths have been performed, e l e c t r o n - e l e c t r o n s c a t t e r i n g is expected to dominate the e l e c t r o n - p h o n o n mechanism, and no further a t t e n t i o n was drawn to the problem of the mean free path dependence of zE. A1 with the theoretical prediction for (~E/ZECO)(s For details see the appendix.
At the critical c u r r e n t density, Jc, it is v s equal to the critical velocity , v = h / 2 m l / - 3 ~(T). 8S3~0'/a~/2(T:0/(To0-T)) ~/2. (7) and [2,81,87J ZGL= ~ h / 8 k ( T o 0 - T ) it f o l l o w s F= 1 / 2 z E+ 1/6z6L so t h a t at the critical c u r r e n t density zc~in,j c = ( 4 k T o o / n h ) z~ (I+zE/3ZGL) -~/2 For 1/2Za<