By Shahrukh Rafi Khan (auth.)
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Extra info for Do World Bank and IMF Policies Work?
Complete time series on education variables were not available. All values have been converted to real million rupees. The results of the base regression were much weaker when only grants (with or without technical assistance) was used instead of the aid variable. SA, Aid, Debt and Growth 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 27 Also, the results were much weaker when aid was included in the base regression contemporaneously. An advantage of cointegration analysis is that it helps in avoiding spurious results.
1 for Pakistan's debt/GOP ratio. Cassen ct al. ( 1990), Annex, Tables and Bibliography, Table I Oz. 18) with industrial output. Ridcll (1987, p. 114). Cas sen et al. ( 1990). Cas sen et al. ( 1990, p. 9) report that consulting draws away about I 0 per cent of all aid in Pakistan. Cassen et al. ( 1990, p. 50) speculate, based on the findings of an earlier study, that 'tying' increases the cost of procurement in Pakistan by about 30 per cent. Commodity aid was about a quarter of total non-military aid in 1987-8, the latest year for which such disaggregated data are available.
We coin the term 'currency tax' to designate that which is implicitly paid by poor countries every time they depreciate their currency. This tax occurs because the dollar denominated debt rises in local currency terms immediately and proportionately to the depreciation in the currency. In the rest of this appendix we explain the simple method for quantifying the additional debt burden resulting from a currency depreciation; and then use Pakistani data, as an example, to show the loss over various time periods including the structural adjustment period.