Embedded multitasking by Keith E. Curtis

By Keith E. Curtis

In an embedded method, firmware is the software program that at once interfaces with the microcontroller, controlling the system’s functionality. the most important forces riding the embedded firmware improvement method at the present time are lowered improvement occasions, elevated complexity, and the necessity to deal with a number of initiatives at the same time. those forces translate into strenuous layout specifications for embedded engineers and programmers. Many low-level embedded microcontroller designs have inadequate reminiscence and/or architectural obstacles that make using a real-time working procedure impractical. The innovations awarded during this ebook let the layout of strong multitasking firmware by using interleaved kingdom machines. This e-book offers an entire assessment of multitasking terminology and simple strategies. useful standards for job choice and country laptop layout also are discussed.
Designing multitasking firmware is onerous, advanced and fraught with power for mistakes, and there's no one, “standard” strategy to do it. This publication will current an entire and well-organized layout process with examples and pattern resource code that designers can persist with.

* Covers each point of layout from the process point to the part point, together with approach timing, speaking with the undefined, integration and testing.
* Accompanying spouse site comprises the resource code for the textual content examples and different invaluable layout instruments

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However, this does creates two inefficiencies; one, it wastes two data memory locations holding values that will always be zero and, two, it wastes execution cycles on 8 additional bits of multiply which will always result in a zero. The more efficient solution is to create a custom 8 × 16 multiply routine. This saves the 2 data bytes and eliminates the wasted execution time spent multiplying the always-zero MSB of the 8-bit value. Also, because the routine can be optimized now to use an 8-bit multiplicand, the routine will actually use less program memory as it will not have the overhead of handling the MSB of the multiplicand.

This allows the high-level language to optimize its math and comparison routines for a single bit location within a data word, making the math and comparison routines more efficient. However, this does place some overhead on the access routines for the BIT’s data structure. Other compilers, designed for target microcontrollers with instructions capable of setting, clearing, manipulating, and testing individual bits within a data word, avoid this overhead by simply designing their boolean and comparison routines to take advantage of the BIT instructions.

4 variable_name variable_name LONG, short for long integer, is the next larger data type. It is typically used to hold very large signed and unsigned binary values, and while the BITs and CHARs have consistent and predefined data lengths, the length of a LONG is again, dependent on the specific implementation of the high-level compiler. As a result, the actual number of bits in a LONG can vary from as few as 16 bits, up to whatever the upper limit of the compiler defines for data types. The only limitation on the size of a LONG variable is that it must be at least as large, or larger, than an INT.

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