By Mai'a K. Davis Cross
Do a few of the elements of Europe's multi-leveled public international relations shape a coherent total snapshot, or do they paintings opposed to one another to a point? eu Public international relations pushes the literature on public international relations ahead via a multifaceted exploration of the eu case.
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Extra resources for European Public Diplomacy: Soft Power at Work
British cultural policy is less prominent, and this reveals an important difference in conceptions of PD. For France and Germany, language, education, and culture are essential components of creating spheres of inf luence, leading to soft and normative power that can impact positively upon foreign policy objectives. For the UK, which has the luxury of a dominant language, these aspects are now framed within PD policy in almost exclusively economic terms. The British Council now earns a large percentage of its funding through selling English language courses, and promoting higher education is as much about maintaining a sector under financial pressure as it is about shaping future inf luencers.
Norm diffusion can be relatively strong or weak, depending on the bar one sets. A weaker version would entail the achievement of understanding or appreciation of a certain norm, while a stronger version would entail acceptance or adoption of the norm. 24. Joseph Nye, Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Power (New York: Public Affairs, 2004). 25. Jolyon Howorth, The Security and Defense Policy in the European Union” (New York: Palgrave, 2007), 59. CH A P T E R T WO West European Public Diplomacy Ja m e s Pa m m e n t There are many kinds of public diplomacy (PD) currently practiced in Europe.
The Francophonie, the Commonwealth (plus the United States), and the Drang nach Osten are each relevant to the respective spheres of inf luence, though not exclusively since there are other major emerging powers to compete over. At the risk of pushing the argument, there is perhaps even a sense in which competition over the favor of countries like China and India has a neoimperialist bent reminiscent of the latenineteenth century. In any case, there is strong evidence to suggest that PD is thoroughly implicated in creating and maintaining new spheres of influence for the twenty-first century.