By Oliver Richmond
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Extra info for Failed statebuilding : intervention and the dynamics of peace formation
Rarely has there been a consideration that there may be an internal and non-violent struggle for peace at the grassroots level that has the potential to bring about a sustainable order – this might be termed ‘peace formation’. Thus, the interaction between the processes of state formation, statebuilding, peacebuilding and a concept this book introduces, ‘peace formation’, is necessary to understand the forms of peace that are emerging in international politics. Different forms of power, authority, legitimacy, rights, norms and identity circulate around peace frameworks in conflict-affected societies.
The notions of ‘do no harm’ and ‘conflict or context sensitivity’57 are the only limited contributions so far. ) underlines how limited this improvement has so far been. The recent trend towards accepting ‘good enough’58 outcomes is also indicative of the tension peacebuilding and statebuilding are subject to, locally, in terms of international consensus, and the resources intervention brings to bear. Such processes often provide international support for elite local power structures rather than peace structures.
If liberal peacebuilding and neoliberal statebuilding have been the dominant models in the post-Cold War era, and their successes have been so limited, why do they continue to be used and defended in this way? Do an assemblage of liberal norms and the rationalities of governance associated with a neoliberal political economy represent the only way of making peace and fostering development, rights and law? 21 This may partly be explained, first, because the institutional frameworks are externally designed with a European or Northern, developed, individualistic context, security, norms and interests in mind, but they do not provide a peace dividend quickly enough to undercut currents of violence and root causes of conflict.