By D.C. Wright
A desirable perception into why polymer items fail, and the way we will be able to research from the errors of the previous. This e-book describes a number of the mechanisms of polymer degradation, and illustrates every one failure mechanism with a few case experiences. This ebook was once written with the aid of the united kingdom division of alternate and undefined. it really is meant to elevate understanding of the motives and effects of polymer product disasters, so one can decrease the longer term incidences of such mess ups, and their significant expenditures to undefined.
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Additional info for Failure of Plastics and Rubber Products - Causes, Effects and Case Studies Involving Degradation
Thin PVC film (containing phthalate and chlorinated paraffin plasticisers) and LDPE films are prone to degradation and embrittlement when in prolonged contact with hot water cylinders, and their use should only be contemplated in such situations if customers can accept what are effectively ‘cosmetic’ changes rather than catastrophic failures. 2. Plasticised PVC film should be used in preference to LDPE because of its longer life expectancy. Another argument in favour of PVC is that, increasingly, fire retardant grades are being specified and it is much easier to achieve good retardancy with PVC compounds.
The propagation of further oxidation then depends on slower reactions and in particular the abstraction of hydrogen from adjacent polymer molecules by the peroxide: R1O2• + R2H A R1OOH + R2• (reaction (b)) to produce another free radical R2• (which immediately reacts with oxygen to replenish the peroxide concentration) and an unstable hydroperoxide which via decomposition or other reactions generate a further two reactive species. R1OOH A R1O• + OH• (reaction (c)) The conversion of peroxides to hydroperoxides is the rate determining step for the chain reaction.
5 where [AO] is the initial antioxidant concentration. This was reported to be the case over a range of antioxidant concentrations and for a number of different antioxidant types . 3. Notably: i) Durability is sensitive to antioxidant type as well as concentration. 4% concentration of Irganox 1010 (described as type AO-1) in PP gave a lifetime of 175 days at 135 °C compared with only 60 days for type Irganox 1076 (AO-2). 2% concentration of Irganox 1330 (AO-3) in HDPE gave a lifetime of 500 days at 120 °C compared with only 200 days for type AO-2.