By James F. Scott
Ferroelectric stories have replaced in 10 brief years from educational curiosities of the college examine labs to advertisement units in large-scale creation. this can be the 1st textual content on ferroelectric stories that's not simply an edited selection of papers by means of diversified authors. meant for utilized physicists, electric engineers, fabrics scientists and ceramists, it contains ferroelectric basics, particularly for skinny motion pictures, circuit diagrams and processsing chapters, yet emphazises gadget physics. Breakdown mechanisms, switching kinetics and leakage present mechanisms have lengthly chapters dedicated to them. The e-book may be welcomed by way of learn scientists in and govt laboratories and in universities. It additionally includes seventy six difficulties for college students, making it quite invaluable as a textbook for fourth-year undergraduate or first-year graduate students.
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Extra info for Ferroelectric Memories
0 P(z) 10 z Fig. 13. 18) in it and solving an Euler-Lagrange equation . 00 Fig. 14. T o versus d from P(z) . 19) where p+ and p- are the polarizations at the film surfaces, and 0 is an extrapolation length that describes how sharply curved P(z) is near the surfaces. 0 is a phenomenological term. Neither its sign nor its magnitude are at present calculable from microscopic models. ;, and Fig. 14 shows how T o of the film will vary with d. d is defined in such a way that T o and other parameters of interest vary as lid, so maximum effects occur for d small in magnitude (positive or negative).
Imprint NEC 8 kbit TEG 1T/1C 1T/2C >t U C GI Vref (Vcc/2) Vi Vo Vref Vo ::s . g' GI U. 6 VaL (V) Fig. 9. NEC test values of bit-line voltage distribution for IT/2C and IT/IC cells Note that the difference in voltage between the two operational points in Fig. 7 is defined as twice the signal voltage 21/;;ig. The signal voltage is one of the key design parameters. In an electrical testing of a ferroelectric RAM, it is actually the degradation in READ signal voltage (and not Pr) that is measured. This is shown in Fig.
Repetition rate for the four-pulse sequence is < 50 kHz. Thus, one cycle takes > 20 I-lS. For a 10 11 cycle fatigue test, this is 2 x 106 s, or one month! More modern equipment utilizes high-speed testers (and fast risetime pulses) that permit these pulse widths and separations to be « 1 ms, thus lowering the fatigue test time to hours. Perhaps the newest commercial test apparatus at present is the Aixact TF tester from Aachen; the Radiant RT-66 is the most popular tester in use. Early testing often utilized triangular voltage pulses instead of square pulses).