By Helen E. Roy, Eric Wajnberg
Harmonia axyridis has been defined because the “most invasive ladybird on Earth”. It has an extended historical past of use as a classical organic keep watch over agent within the united states and extra lately in Europe. This beetle has been potent at controlling pest bugs in various crop platforms however it poses unacceptable dangers by way of impacting on non-target species as either an intraguild predator and competitor.
Written through popular scientists, this booklet is a synthesis of modern examine on H. axyridis and gives informative insights into present views and destiny instructions. organic regulate is an integral part of sustainable agriculture however the contrast among a profitable organic keep watch over agent and an invasive species could be slim. we are hoping that classes may be learnt from H. axyridis.
Dr Helen E. Roy is an ecologist with the NERC - Centre for Ecology and Hydrology within the united kingdom. She has adventure in insect ecology and behavior and has released extensively during this box. particularly her learn pursuits concentrate on ladybirds and their interactions with different species together with pathogenic fungi. during the last 14 years Helen has studied such intraguild interactions in the context of organic keep an eye on. She is at the moment the convenor of the IOBC WPRS (International business enterprise of organic keep an eye on) research staff on advantages and dangers linked to unique organic regulate Agents.
Dr Éric Wajnberg is a inhabitants biologist specialized in inhabitants genetics, behavioural ecology and statistical modelling. He develops theoretical techniques - in most cases in response to Monte Carlo simulations - and experiments are carried out with a purpose to make sure the predictions got. he's additionally knowledgeable in organic keep watch over (past Secretary common of the foreign service provider of organic keep an eye on - IOBC), with greater than twenty years of labor with insect parasitoids. He has already released a number of books at the use of insect parasitoids in organic keep watch over programmes opposed to crop pests.
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Extra info for From Biological Control to Invasion: the Ladybird Harmonia axyridis as a Model Species
2006b). Depending on the proportion of clusters with damage, H. axyridis populations can easily build to infest 65% of all clusters for some varieties (Galvan et al. 2006b). We hypothesize that H. axyridis feeds on grapes and other fruits in autumn to build reserves for overwintering. A couple months prior to overwintering, coccinellids start to prepare for winter by a mechanism called pre-diapause, where beetles accumulate fat and glycogen reserves, which is triggered by a decline in food resources (Hagen 1962; Hodek and Cˇerkasov 1963; Hodek 1986).
W. w. w. w. w. w. w. w. w. w. w. w. w. 3 6 12 24 48 4 8 16 32 64 5 10 20 40 80 magnitude (c) effect <5% mort. <40% mort. w. w. w. w. 8 16 32 3 6 12 24 48 4 8 16 32 64 5 10 20 40 80 4 effects on nontarget populations Fig. 2 Ecological Risk Index matrix to determine the level of risk of adverse effects of an IBCA for three ecological determinants: establishment (top), dispersal (middle) and direct and indirect effects (bottom). w. = no weight factor included, mort. = mortality, sps = short term population suppression, lps = long term population suppression (see van Lenteren and Loomans 2006 for descriptions of determinants).
Biol Invasions 6:463–471 Babendreier D (2007) Pros and cons of biological control. In: Nentig W (ed) Biological invasions. SpringerVerlag, Berlin, pp 403–418 Boettner GH, Elkinton JS, Boettner CJ (2000) Effects of a biological control introduction on three nontarget native species of saturniid moths. Conserv Biol 14:1798–1806 Brown MW (2003) Intraguild responses of aphid predators on apple to the invasion of an exotic species, Harmonia axyridis. BioControl 48:141–153 Brown MW, Miller SS (1998) Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) in apple orchards of eastern West Virginia and the impact of invasion by Harmonia axyridis.