By Cor Claeys, Eddy Simoen
Germanium is a semiconductor fabric that shaped the foundation for the advance of transistor expertise. even if the leap forward of planar expertise and built-in circuits positioned silicon within the foreground, in recent times there was a renewed curiosity in germanium, which has been caused by means of its robust power for deep submicron (sub forty five nm) applied sciences. Germanium-Based applied sciences: From fabrics to units is the 1st booklet to supply a large, in-depth insurance of the sphere, together with fresh advances in Ge-technology and the basics in fabric technological know-how, gadget physics and semiconductor processing. The contributing authors are overseas specialists with a world-wide reputation and occupied with the best examine within the box. The e-book additionally covers purposes and using Ge for optoelectronics, detectors and sun cells. an awesome reference paintings for college kids and scientists operating within the box of physics of semiconductor units and fabrics, in addition to for engineers in examine centres and undefined. either the newcomer and the specialist may still make the most of this particular ebook. * state of the art details on hand for the 1st time as an all-in-source* vast reference record making it an vital reference ebook* wide insurance from basic points as much as business purposes
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Additional info for Germanium-Based Technologies: From Materials to Devices
9, so that a thicker gate oxide can be implemented, resulting in a lower gate leakage current density. Unfortunately, the use of high-κ gate oxides is confronted with some serious problems. One is that the quality with respect to oxide and interface charges for state-of-the-art deposition by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) or atomic layer deposition (ALD) is significantly lower compared with SiO2 . This leads to threshold voltage instabilities, current hysteresis and a rather high and asymmetric flat-band voltage shift between n- and p-type devices.
Evolution of the price of germanium (as contained in GeO2). others have ceased their operations in recent years. In the late nineties, OMG (Outokumpu Mooney Group) invested in a smelter in Lubumbashi (Congo-Zaire) to recover mainly Cu, Co and Zn from the “Big Hill”. It is estimated that this slag dump contains about 3000 m of germanium. The annual output can be estimated at 5–10 m of Ge contained. Today a number of smaller projects are under study. Just to name a few; War Eagle mining is studying the possibility to recover germanium from an old zinc mine in Mexico, Tres Marias, that ceased its operations in the early nineties.
Starting material for the Ge crystal growth has to be of high purity, particularly with respect to electrically active impurities. For the growth of IR-grade and electronic-grade germanium single crystals, the concentration of electrically active impurities in the starting materials must not exceed 1013 cmϪ3. Polycrystalline zone-refined Ge bars and scraps from single crystals can be used for this purpose. For the growth of HP-Ge crystals for γ-ray detector applications, the starting material has to be of impurity content less than 1011 cmϪ3, which is achieved by zone refining of Ge with single crystal seeding.