By William Damon, Richard M. Lerner, Deanna Kuhn, Robert S. Siegler
A part of the authoritative four-volume reference that spans the complete box of kid improvement and has set the traditional opposed to which all different scholarly references are in comparison. up-to-date and revised to mirror the hot advancements within the box, the instruction manual of kid Psychology, 6th version comprises new chapters on such themes as spirituality, social knowing, and non-verbal communication.Volume 2: Cognition, belief, and Language, edited through Deanna Kuhn, Columbia collage, and Robert S. Siegler, Carnegie Mellon college, covers mechanisms of cognitive and perceptual improvement in language acquisition. It comprises new chapters dedicated to neural bases of cognition, motor improvement, grammar and langauge ideas, info processing, and challenge fixing talents.
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Additional info for Handbook of Child Psychology, Vol. 2: Cognition, Perception, and Language, 6th Edition
Development. , 2001). It is now well known that there is a massive overproduction of synapses distributed across broad regions of the brain, followed by a gradual reduction in synapses; it has been estimated that 40% more synapses are produced than exist in the final (adult) complement of synapses (see Levitt, 2003). The peak of the overproduction varies by brain area. For example, in the visual cortex, a synaptic peak is reached between roughly the 4th and 8th postnatal months (Huttenlocher & de Courten, 1987), whereas in the middle frontal gyrus (in the prefrontal cortex) the peak synaptic density is not obtained until after 15 postnatal months (Huttenlocher & Dabholkar, 1997).
However, for each dividing cell, only one daughter cell will continue to divide; the nondividing cell goes on to migrate to its final destination (Rakic, 1988). Before turning to disorders of proliferation, three points should be noted. First, with the exception of cells that comprise the olfactory bulb, the dentate region of the hippocampus, and possibly regions of the neocortex, virtually every one of the estimated 100 billion neurons we possess (Naegele & Lombroso, 2001) are of prenatal origin (see section on postnatal neurogenesis); glia follow this same general pattern, although the development of glia (with the exception of radial glial cells; see section on migration that follows) lags somewhat behind neuronal development.
From this observation comes the idea of a differential sensitive period: specifically, the sensitive period for visual acuity may differ from that of face processing. Learning and Memory Function Hormones have long been associated with mediating cognitive differences between males and females due to their organizing effect on the brain. This association can even be observed prenatally. For example, Shors and Miesegaes (2002) capitalized on previous findings in which exposure to stressful and traumatic events enhances new learning in adult male rats, but impairs new learning in adult female rats.