By Y. Kim, J. Lee
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Extra info for Hf-Based High-k Dielectrics
Ghibaudo, “A thorough investigation of progressive breakdown in ultra-thin oxides. , 2002, pp. 45–54.  J. Sune, E. Y. Wu, D. Jimbez’, R. P. Vollertsen, and E. Miranda, “Understanding soft and hard breakdown statistics, prevalence ratios and energy dissipation during breakdown runaway,” Tech. Dig. IEDM, pp. 117–120, 2001.  Jordi Su˜ne´ and Ernest Wu, “Statistics of successive breakdown events for ultra-thin gate oxides,” Tech. Dig. IEDM, pp. 147–150, 2002.  R. Degraeve, B. Kaczer, M.
11 shows the waveform of unipolar stress and its definition. The term on-time to 50% failure means that the breakdown time was counted on the basis of only the on-time to the failure (ton ). 11: Wave form of unipolar stress and its definition. conditions [36, 37]. In this experiment, we have used unipolar stressing and then did comparison with dc stressing. The leakage current characteristics of HfO2 used in this study are well controlled and uniform (Fig. 12). Basically, HfO2 consists of bulk high-k layer and interface layer.
Gopalan, R. Nieh, K. Onishi, Y. J. Jeon, W. J. Qi, C. S Kang, and J. C. Lee, “Characteristics of TaN gate MOSFET with ultrathin hafnium oxide (8 Å–12 Å),” Tech. Dig. , p. 39, 2000. HARD- AND SOFT-BREAKDOWN CHARACTERISTICS OF ULTRATHIN HfO2 43  J. Robertson, “Band offsets of wide-band-gap oxides and implications for future electronic devices,” J. Vacuum Sci. Tech. B, Vol. 18, pp. 1785–1791, 2000. 591472  R. Choi, K. Onishi, C. S. Kang, S. Gopalan, R. Nieh, Y. H. Kim, J. H. Han, S. Krishnan, H.