By Matthias Hein

The publication develops a finished knowing of the outside impedance of the oxide high-temperature superconductors compared to the traditional superconductor Nb3Sn. Linear and nonlinear microwave responses are handled individually, either by way of versions, theories or numerical techniques and when it comes to experimental effects. The theoretical remedy connects basic elements of superconductivity to the categorical high-frequency homes. The experimental information evaluate the state-of-the-art, as stated by way of many foreign teams. The publication describes additional the most good points of applicable guidance, dealing with, mounting, and refrigeration recommendations, and at last discusses attainable purposes in passive and lively microwave devices.

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22). 7) f [H(r)12d2r ' conductor where the surface integral extends over the superconducting surface A. 8) where the bar over P~ has been omitted for simplicity. The factor G -- wLef can be considered as the characteristic impedance of the resonator in the absence of losses. It is often referred to as the "geometry factor", since it depends at a given frequency only on the dimensions of the resonator and on the distribution of the electromagnetic fields in it (referred to as "mode"). , [1, 6, 7]).

The resonant frequency of the fundamental mode of a half-wavelength resonator is given by w0 = (g2L'C')-I/2, and the current-to-power conversion factor by 75 ~ 2/wL'L Displayed in Fig. 1 are three different geometries which are commonly applied to transmission lines. Each of these displays specific advantages and disadvantages which were reviewed in detail elsewhere [1, 6, 12] and will not be considered here. However, the three geometries have different electromagnetic boundary conditions, which are basically contained in the aspect ratio w/h where w and h are the width of the central conductor and the height of the dielectric, respectively.

However, there are various indications for the existence of quasi-particle states at energies below Z5 (for a recent overview, see [117]). This is not surprising since the tunneling density of states (TDOS) could easily deviate 42 1. 2 / K ~= ~" ! 9 -50 0 50 100 -4oi V , mV 50 T 42 K " = , ^ j ~ ~ / ~""~ -40 -30 -20 -10 0 ....... :~ -25 -150 -100 \,/ -50 0 V,rnV 50 100 150 Fig. 15. 2 K displaying different energy gaps and very low subgap currents. , Fig. 12) [116]. from the bulk DOS due to interface effects, especially when considering the coherence length being comparable to unit-cell dimensions.