By Minh-Hà Pham-Delègue, James Devillers, Minh-Ha Pham-Delegue
Honey Bees: Estimating the Environmental effect of chemical substances is an up to date account of different recommendations for assessing the ecotoxicity of xenobiotics opposed to those social bugs, which play a key position in either ecology and agriculture. as well as the classical acute laboratory try out, semi-field cage exams and entire box funnel checks, new assessments established often on behavioral responses are for the 1st time essentially defined. details at the direct and oblique results on honey bees of radionuclides, heavy metals, insecticides, semi-volatile natural compounds and genetically changed vegetation can also be awarded.
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Additional resources for Honey Bees: Estimating the Environmental Impact of Chemicals
This was demonstrated in side-by-side tests done recently in conjunction with Oak Ridge National Laboratory . Compounds of higher molecular weights, for example many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with petroleum and creosote, were seen more readily. Approximately 25 ng of analyte were needed for detection above background noise in the mass spectrometer. 100 dm3/min ﬂow velocity. Our current sampling train has added two tubes in front of the Carbotrap C10H18O3 C10H18O3 C10H20O C10H20O3 C16H30O2 C35H70 – S-9-Hydroxy-(E)-2-decenoic acid R-9-Hydroxy-(E)-2-decenoic acid Menthol 10-Hydroxy-(E)-2-decenoic acid Palmityic acid 17-Pentatriacontene Hydrocarbons C10H18O C10H16O C10H16O2 C10H16O2 C10H18O C15H26O C9H12O3 C10H16O3 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanol 9-Oxo-(E)-2-decenoic acid Nasonov gland Geraniol (E)-Citral and (Z)-citral Geranic acid Nerolic acid Nerol (E,E)-Farnesol C7H14O C8H8O3 C8H14O2 C6H12O2 Mandibular gland Hexanoic acid 2-Heptanone Methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate Octanoic acid Formula Pheromone 154 152 168 168 154 222 186 186 156 188 256 490 – 168 184 114 152 144 116 MW worker worker worker worker worker worker queen queen queen nurse queen queen worker queen queen guard queen nurse nurse Bees orientation orientation orientation orientation orientation orientation royal jelly antibiotic brood recognition?
Two categories of taggants have proved particularly useful – perﬂuorinated compounds and perdeuterated compounds. We have a sufﬁcient number of taggants that arrays of feeders can be uniquely marked. Taggants can be distributed in feeders on the basis of radial distance from the hive, direction or speciﬁc locations. Quantitative analysis of the taggants in the beehive atmosphere allows us to apportion foraging activity among the target categories in the experiment. Very little taggant is required for any one experiment.
1980). Nasonov pheromone of the honeybee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera:Apidae). Part I. Chemical characterization. J. Chem. Ecol. 6, 426–434. A. and Boch, R. (1966). Citral in the Nasanoff pheromone of the honey bee. J. Insect Physiol. 12, 1513–1521. H. L. (1988). Semiochemical basis of retinue response to queen honey bees. Nature 332, 354–356. S. W. (1975). Antifungal properties of the insect alarm pheromones. J. Apic. Res. 20, 13–18. M. S. (1982). Bioassay of compounds derived from the honey bee sting.