By Harvey Elliott White
Advent to atomic spectra.
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Extra info for Introduction To Atomic Spectra
4 Surface tension It was observed by Doshi and Reneker that beadless ﬁbers could be obtained by reducing the surface tension of a polymer solution . 3 Processing parameters 53 not always true, as shown by Liu and Hsieh in their work producing cellulose ﬁbers by electrospinning of cellulose acetate using dimethylacetamide (DMAc) and acetone as the solvents. 4 dyne/cm. When using either DMAc or acetone alone as the solvent, beads or beaded ﬁbers were obtained. 4 dyne/cm, beadless ﬁbers were observed .
Therefore synthetic polymers are not composed of identical molecules, but of a mixture of molecules with molecular weights in a certain range. Molecular weight distribution (MWD) is often used to characterize this property of polymers. Average molecular weight is computed to approximately measure the molecule size of a polymer. Owing to the heterogeneity of polymer MW, average molecular weight is measured in different ways depending on the way in which the heterogeneity is averaged. The most commonly used ways are weight-average molecular weight, Mw, and numberaverage molecular weight, Mn.
5 to 10 kcal/mole by contrast . Secondary forces can also be found between segments of a long molecular chain. Primary bonding forces are divided into ionic, metallic and covalent bonding, including coordinate or dative bonding. Ionic bonds form between atoms with largely differing electronegativites and are characterized by a lack of directional bonding. They not typically present for polymer backbones. Similar to ionic bonds, metallic bonds lack bonding direction and are typically absent from polymers.