Introduction to Millimeter/Sub-Millimeter Astronomy by Wilson, T. L

By Wilson, T. L

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Correction algorithms are available for observations of the earth relative to center of mass of the solar system. The resulting radial velocities are then as close to an inertial system. Results obtained by many independent investigations show that the solar system moves with a velocity given by the standard solar motion. This is the solar motion relative to the mode of the velocity of the stars in the solar neighborhood. Data from which the standard solar motion has been eliminated are said to refer to the local standard of rest (LSR).

25). 34 T. L. Wilson TB (s) = TB (0) e−τν (s) + T (1 − e−τν (s) ) . (66) Here s is the (geometric) path length along the line-of-sight with s = 0 at the upper edge of the atmosphere and s = s0 at the antenna. Both the (volume) absorption coefficient κ and the gas temperature T will vary with s, introducing the mass absorption coefficient kν by κν = kν · ̺ , (67) where ̺ is the gas density; this variation of κ can mainly be traced to that of ̺ as long as the gas mixture remains constant along the line-of-sight.

If a taumeter is not available one must use a more elaborate procedure. By measuring the response to a cold load, one can determine the receiver noise, and can obtain a good estimate of the noise from the atmosphere. Then, assuming a value of Tatm and ηl = Feff , one can then determine τ = τ0 X(z), and can use this to correct for atmospheric absorption. To calibrate spectral lines, one frequently measures sources for which one has single sideband spectra. Finally observations often have to be corrected Millimeter/Sub-Millimeter Astronomy 37 for yet another effect: the telescope efficiency usually depends on elevation.

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