By I.I. Sobel'man
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Extra resources for Introduction to the Theory of Atomic Spectra
There are also resonance lines in the visible part of the spectrum. The electronic structure of alkali metal ions is the same as for the atoms of inert gases: therefore the electron shells Li + , Na + , ... are very stable and are excited with difficulty. The resonance lines of these ions lie in the far ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The lines of alkali metal ions are not observable in the visible region of the spectrum even at considerable ion concentrations. The systems of terms of ions of the isoelectronic sequences (Li I) Ball, Bill, CIV, N V, O VI (Nal) Mgll, A1III, Si IV, P V, S VI are similar to those which occur with the alkali atoms.
States with given values ofj\,j2 and / a r e denoted by means of(j1j2)J. Thus, the state ji = hJ2 = i and / = 1, 2 are the states Q- §>! and (i i)2. The appropriate notations are given in the last column of Table 5. The total number of levels with a given value / for a 34 INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF THE ATOMIC SPECTRA TABLE 5. 2 \TT/2,3 (44) (44) \ z z /0,1,2,3 \ L Z /l,2,3,4 specific electron configuration must be one and the same both in the case of LS and in the case of yy-coupling. It is easy to check that this really occurs.
Knowing the electron configuration, the ground term can be determined by Hund's rule. The table begins with hydrogen, the ground state of which is the state Is. The next element He corresponds to the configuration Is 2 . The third element Li has the ground configuration Is 2 2s. In accordance with the Pauli principle, there cannot be more than two electrons in the state Is, therefore the third electron of the Li atom occupies the lowest free state 2s. Filling of the states n = 2 begins from the Li atom.