Nanotribology and nanomechanics: an introduction by Bharat Bhushan

By Bharat Bhushan

The fresh emergence and proliferation of proximal probes, e.g. SPM and AFM, and computational thoughts for simulating tip-surface interactions has enabled the systematic research of interfacial difficulties on ever smaller scales, in addition to created potential for enhancing and manipulating nanostructures. in brief, they've got ended in the looks of the hot, interdisciplinary fields of micro/nanotribology and micro/nanomechanics.

This quantity serves as a well timed, sensible advent to the rules of nanotribology and nanomechanics and functions to magnetic garage structures and MEMS/NEMS. Assuming a few familiarity with macrotribology/mechanics, the e-book includes chapters through across the world well-known specialists, who combine wisdom of the sphere from the mechanics and materials-science views. They conceal key dimension thoughts, their purposes, and theoretical modelling of interfaces, every one starting their contributions with macro- and progressing to microconcepts. After reviewing the elemental experimental and theoretical features within the first half, Nanotribology and Nanomechanics then treats functions.

Three teams of readers tend to locate this article useful: graduate scholars, examine staff, and working towards engineers. it could function he foundation for a accomplished, one- or two-semester path in scanning probe microscopy; utilized scanning probe thoughts; or nanotribology/nanomechanics/nanotechnology, in departments corresponding to mechanical engineering, fabrics technology, and utilized physics.

With a Foreword by way of Physics Nobel Laureate Gerd Binnig

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The response waveform is obtained with a thin liquid film between the sheets, which causes it to lag the calibration waveform, (b) the oscilloscope trace of the drive and response voltages used to determine critical shear stress. The drive waveform shows voltage proportional to induced stress on the sheared film and the response waveform shows voltage proportional to resulting velocity. Spikes in the response curve correspond to the stick–slip event [66] 22 Bharat Bhushan tional behavior of the film after a sufficiently high shear stress was applied to exceed the yield stress and to produce sliding at a constant velocity.

Because the mica surfaces are molecularly smooth, the actual area of contact is well defined and measurable, and asperity deformation do not complicate the analysis. During sliding experiments, the area of parallel surfaces is very large compared to the thickness 14 Bharat Bhushan of the sheared film and this provides an ideal condition for studying shear behavior because it permits one to study molecularly-thin liquid films whose thickness is well defined to the resolution of an angstrom. Molecularly thin liquid films cease to behave as a structural continuum with properties different from that of the bulk material [40, 44–47].

The differential signal from the top and bottom photodiodes provides the AFM signal which is a sensitive measure of the cantilever vertical deflection. Topographic features of the sample cause the tip to deflect in the vertical direction as the sample is scanned under the tip. This tip deflection will change the direction of the reflected laser beam, changing the intensity difference between the top and bottom sets of photodetectors (AFM signal). In the AFM operating mode called the height mode, for topographic imaging or for any other operation in which the applied normal force is to be kept a constant, a feedback circuit is used to modulate the voltage applied to the PZT scanner to adjust the height of the PZT, so that the cantilever vertical deflection (given by the intensity difference between the top and bottom detector) will remain constant during scanning.

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