Photoemission in Solids II: Case Studies by L. Ley, M. Cardona

By L. Ley, M. Cardona

With contributions through a number of specialists

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Photoemission in Solids II: Case Studies

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We present in Fig. 30a] with the nonlocal empirical pseudopotential method (EPM). Because of the amount of experimental information which went into adjusting the L. Ley et al. K WAVE VECTOR ~ F -k Fig,. 2. 30a] with the nonlocal empirical pseudopotential method. 133] (nonlocal EPM but without spin-orbit interaction). The letters in parentheses denote double group symmetries, those without parentheses single group symmetries. The location of the Eo, E o + A0, and E~ gaps are indicated by arrows parameters of the pseudopotential, we believe this band structure to be highly reliable.

With the development of the photoresist microelectronics technology, however, considerable materials retrenchment into silicon has taken place in recent years. 26]. Optical studies concerned themselves mainly with the lowest indirect and direct absorption edges until the late fifties and early sixties. 27, 28]. Thus electronic states deep into the valence band, of primary concern in photoelectron spectroscopy, were first probed. A number of other developments in the field of optical properties of semiconductors followed.

88]. According to these authors the materials are ionic with the chalcogen doubly charged and the metal with configurations d °, d t, and d 2 in the IV B, V B, and VI B compounds, respectively. The valence bands are composed mainly of filled s- and p-states of the chalcogens (configuration s2p 6) and there are empty conduction states originating from empty s- and p-levels of the metal (as we shall see later, these metal and chalcogen orbitals hybridize strongly along the bond directions). Between these two sets of bands, separated by a gap ( o - 0" gap) of ~ 7 eV, the d valence levels are located.

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