By Khosrow Golshan
Physical layout necessities explains the elemental steps required within the actual layout of software particular built-in Circuits (ASICs). the subject material presentation follows the industry-common ASIC actual layout flow.
Topics coated include:
- Basic general phone layout, transistor-sizing, and structure styles
- Linear, non-linear, and polynomial characterization
- Physical layout constraints and ground making plans styles
- Algorithms used for placement
- Clock tree synthesis
- Algorithms used for worldwide and distinctive routing
- Parasitic extraction
- Functional timing and actual equipment of verification
- Testing Techniques
Physical layout necessities is written for pro layout engineers who must be conversant with all elements of ASIC layout implementation: gadget approaches, library improvement, place-and-route algorithms, verification, and testing.
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Additional info for Physical design essentials: an ASIC design implementation perspective
This cumbersome and timeconsuming translation process drove the need for a standard electronic design interchange format. To address this issue, the first electronic industry standard format (Electronic Design Interchange Format, or EDIF) was introduced. EDIF is very rich in format and is capable of representing connectivity information, schematic drawings, technology and design rules, and Multi Chip Module (MCM) descriptions, as well as allowing transfer of documentation associated with physical layouts.
As mentioned in Chapter 1, for a given ASIC design there are three types of I/O pads. These pads are power, ground, and signal. It is critical to functional operation of an ASIC design to insure that the pads have adequate power and ground connections and are placed properly in order to eliminate electromigration and current-switching noise related problems.
The range for supply voltage +/–10% forms the typical value. e. the amount of voltage applied to a MOSFET device without damaging its gate oxide). g. supply voltage variation within +/–5%). In generating simulations for process corners, one should note that the CMOS process has two steps – transistor formation, and metallization. For the PMOS and NMOS transistor formation, or Front End of the Line (FEOL), four process corners occur: x Typical NMOS and PMOS x Fast NMOS and slow PMOS Libraries 33 x Fast PMOS and slow NMOS x Slow NMOS and PMOS For the metallization process, or Back End of the Line (BEOL), where all interconnections and dielectric inter layers are formed, the process corners are: x Best x Typical x Worst These conditions follow a normal distribution where the center is considered as the typical value and the best, or worst, statistically vary by +/–3 V from the center.