By Alan Berryman
For over sixty years, figuring out the explanations of multiannual cycles in animal populations has been a important factor in ecology. This e-book brings jointly ten of the leaders during this box to check the foremost hypotheses and up to date facts within the box, and to set up that trophic interactions are a major think about riding no less than a few of the significant typical oscillations in animal populations that experience lengthy questioned ecologists.
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Additional info for Population Cycles: The Case for Trophic Interactions
Tedella larvae descending from their host trees in November within one stand (thick line) and of parasitized larvae (thin line). 3 Life Table Analysis Life table and key factor analyses are traditionally used to identify the important factors acting on population dynamics (Varley et al. 1973). Using this approach, I found that mortalities due to egg parasitoids and soil predators were independent of population density, and that larval mortality within the mine was negligible (Miinster-Swendsen 1989).
Turchin, P. and A. A. Berryman. 2000. Detecting cycles and delayed density dependence: a comment on Hunter and Price (1998). Ecol. Entomol. 25: 119-121. Turchin, P. and A. D. Taylor. 1992. Complex dynamics in ecological time series. Ecology 73: 289-305. , P. L. Lorio, A. D. Taylor, and R. F. Billings. 1991. Why do populations of southern pine beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) fluctuate. Environ. Entomol. 20: 401-409. Varley, G. , G. R. Gradwell, and M. P. Hassell. 1973. Insect population ecology: an analytical approach.
Adults emerge in June and deposit eggs singly on spruce needles. Larvae mine the needles from July through October and then descend on silken threads in November to hibernate in the forest litter as prepupal larvae in cocoons. Pupation occurs in early May and lasts 3-4 weeks. Like many other forest defoliators, spruce needleminers are associated with a diverse fauna of parasitic Hymenoptera (parasitoids) (MunsterSwendsen 1979). ) that kills the embryo and emerges as an adult a few weeks later. Because spruce needleminer eggs have all hatched by this time, the parasitoids must oviposit in the eggs of other insect species.