By Arnold Zellner, Hugo A. Keuzenkamp, Michael McAleer

The concept that simplicity issues in technology is as previous as technology itself, with the a lot brought up instance of Ockham's Razor. an issue with Ockham's Razor is that just about each person turns out to just accept it, yet few may be able to outline its distinctive that means and to make it operational in a non-arbitrary method. utilizing a multidisciplinary point of view together with philosophers, mathematicians, econometricians and economists, this monograph examines simplicity through asking six questions: what's intended by way of simplicity? How is simplicity measured? Is there an optimal trade-off among simplicity and goodness-of-fit? what's the relation among simplicity and empirical modelling? what's the relation among simplicity and prediction? what's the connection among simplicity and comfort?

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**Sample text**

Several philosophers have asserted, without providing much of a supporting argument, that the trade-off problem has no objective solution. What is the problem of simplicity? 21 For example, Kuhn (1977) claimed that scientists differ in how much importance they assign to one virtue of a theory as opposed to another, and that this difference is just a matter of taste. One scientist may think that the most important demand on a theory is that it should make accurate predictions; another may hold that the ﬁrst duty of a theory is that it be elegant and general.

Accepting or rejecting Prout’s Law (or any other) is a matter of taste – or should we call it free will? 42 Herbert A. Simon the 3/2-power law. Whether it accepts the former, or rejects it and goes on to the latter, depends on the goodness-of-ﬁt criterion it applies (determined by the programmer). BACON, like Kepler and Prout (and everyone else), needs a separate parameter (a ‘propensity for simplicity’) to determine what degree of approximation is acceptable. , the log function, the exponential, the sine function), but it is remarkable that with the linear function as its sole primitive, it discovers not only Kepler’s Third Law, but also Joseph Black’s law of the equilibrium temperatures of mixtures of liquids, Ohm’s law of current and resistance, Snell’s law of refraction, the law of conservation of momentum and a host of others.

Since the likelihoods of speciﬁc curves cannot explain why simplicity is desirable, perhaps we should consider the likelihoods of families of curves. This approach requires that we ask, for example, what the probability is of obtaining the data, if (LIN) is correct? This quantity is an average over all the speciﬁc straight lines (L1 , L2 , . ) that belong to the family: X Pr(Data j LIN) ¼ Pr(Data j Li ÞPr(Li j LINÞ: Some of the Li ’s are very near the data, so the value of Pr(Data | Li ) for those straight lines will be large; however, many straight lines will be quite far away, and so the value of Pr(Data | Li ) for them will be small.