By Alice Wang, Anantha P. Chandrakasan, Benton Highsmith Calhoun

In line with the paintings of MIT graduate scholars Alice Wang and Benton Calhoun, this publication surveys the sector of sub-threshold and low-voltage layout and explores such facets of sub-threshold circuit layout as modeling, common sense and reminiscence circuit layout. One very important bankruptcy of the ebook is devoted to optimizing strength dissipation - a key metric for power limited designs. This e-book additionally contains invited chapters as regards to analog sub-threshold circuits.

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**Additional info for Sub-threshold Design for Ultra Low-Power Systems (Integrated Circuits and Systems)**

**Sample text**

D:sub-threshold , (VGS-VT\ = io exp — \ . , „. 4) [49] [96]. 4) For the model that we present in this chapter, we assume that total drain current in sub-threshold equals sub-threshold current. 2 comments on the validity of this assumption. 3) shows that ID depends exponentially on Vos- VT is the transistor threshold voltage, n is the sub-threshold slope factor {n = 1 + Cd/C'ox), and Vth is the thermal voltage, Vth = kT/q. 2 Modeling Minimum Energy Consvmiption 31 Fig. 5. 8V. In sub-threshold.

A very detailed presentation can be found in "Charge-Based MOS Transistor Modeling: The EKV Model for Low-Power and R F IC Design", by C. Enz and E. Vittoz, 2006, © J o h n Wiley & Sons Limited [52]. 1. In order to maintain -yo„G P+ ffi width W TD I'D P-type local substrate Fig. 1. Schematic cross-section of an N-channel MOS transistor, with definitions of voltages and current. the intrinsic symmetry of the device, the source voltage Vs, gate voltage VQ and drain voltage Vp are all defined with respect to the local substrate.

45V for the pMOS. 95V, which was a breakthrough result. [88] Other than this demonstration, most sub-threshold circuit design focused on sub-threshold analog circuits. Vittoz demonstrated analog circuits such as an amplitude detector, a quartz ring oscillator, a bandpass amplifier, etc. operating in weak-inversion [31]. Lyon and Mead designed many transconductance amplifiers in sub-threshold for cochlea applications [89]. Sub-threshold CMOS circuits emerged again in 2001 as a solution for a hearing-aid application.